A comparative study of the regions
A comparative study of the regions –Bordeaux and Burgundy Wine as an alcohol beverage is made by a complex and fascinating process, which includes pressing the fruits or berries, fermentation the Juice, then through chemicals composed of certain kinds of alcohols, pigments, vitamins, sugar, several minerals and more than 22 organic acids (Maynard 1965). Bordeaux and Burgundy are two of the most well-known and fabulous regions of France. Those top French regions have a long history, strong culture of wine and also possess a large amount of the most famous chateaus.
However, Burgundy and Bordeaux regions both have he their own unique characters and styles of the wine. In addition, the varieties of grapes for making wine also differ a lot. The grape and the certainly of style, quantity and quality of the wine is enormously influenced by weather events occurring in every growing season, terrain and so on. This essay provides a brief overview of the difference between Burgundy and Bordeaux region from a geographical, cultural and winemaking point of view.
In addition, it also discusses a specific type of grape, which is Pinot Noir, and the reason why it is the main red grape in Burgundy and not Cabernet Sauvignon. Since the first century AD, Bordeaux began to plant grapes along with the wine industry in this region began to develop as well Geoff 2010). Bordeaux is located in the southwestern region of France, north of the Quatrain region and near the Atlantic coast. The river Gardener divided the Bordeaux city into two parts, the east is the right band and the other side in the west is left bank, due to the bend of the river location.
The left bank contributes to wine business trading, since streaming outside the bend. It contributes to business transactions because the river formed a deep enough arrow to allow the passing of merchant ships, which used to dock and offload alongside the river. Even tough chateaux in this region produced the largest amount of first-rate wine than the other worldwide of winemaking. However, the quality of the wine varies year-to-year, even season-to-season and uncertainty about the vintage, which attribute to the geographical region.
Bordeaux region is located between west longitude | 0 17 “to the east longitude 0 0 19” and north latitude 44 0 48 “to 45 0 35”, which belongs to temperate maritime climate with hot summers and cold winters without extremes of temperature (Holiday Weather 2014). Figure 1 and figure 2 respectively show the average minimum and maximum temperature over the year and average monthly precipitation over the year (rainfall, snow) in Bordeaux. Figure 1: World Weather and Climate Information, 2013, Average minimum and maximum temperature over the year, World Weather and Climate Information, viewed 3 April 2014, < http://www. eather-and-climate. com/average-monthly- Rainfall-Temperature-Sunshine,Bordeaux,France > Figure 2: World Weather and Climate Information, 2013, Average monthly precipitation over the year (rainfall, snow), World Weather and Climate Information, Rainfall-Temperature-Sunshine,Bordeaux,France> In the mild and humid springtime from March to May, it provides sufficient supply of moisture for early growth grapes. However, too much dampness might be a major problem. The most serious one was in 1991, which had a very high humidity, the vines appeared gray mold and betroths mold, resulting in greatly reduced in wine production (Bill 2014).
Summers in Bordeaux are usually filled with a good level of sunshine and heat, but not excessive high temperature due to proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. The climate becomes chilling and one could see quite a bit of rain falling in heavy showers since September. Cold rain and strong breeze usually hit the region in January. During the winter, cold winds from the Atlantic often blow into the vineyards and might damage the vineyard, but forested hills and ridges in Bordeaux also played essential role to slow down the strong winds or change the direction much more.
The geology of this area contains several kinds of soil, which comprises of gravel, clay and limestone. Among them, the mountain area is gravel soil. The Gardener flows through the Bordeaux region, which offers the irrigation water. In addition, the region s in the temperate maritime climate zone, which provide the fantastic geographical condition for planting grapes. Also, Burgundy has a good long lasting reputation as early as Roman times and is one of the oldest wine regions (Wine Guide 2013). The wine industry has been developed vigorously, since Charlemagne began large-scale cultivation of grapes.
Burgundy is located in the northeastern inland France, between Dijon and Lyon, which is a more northern location than Bordeaux. Figure 3: Chew Nouns, 2013, Average temperature and rainfall for Burgundy, the Direct Route to the Real France, viewed 4 April 2014, It longs to a typical continental climate. However, the range of temperature changes a lot as the altitude and latitude vary due to the strip-shaped of Burgundy. The temperature in the southern part is slightly higher (roughly two degrees on average). From April to October, the temperature is relatively high but not too hot.
It could reach the highest temperatures during July and August along with the rainfall averaging mom per month, then the temperature turns cold in the autumn, a mom increase in the monthly rainfall on average, and accompanied by thunderstorms. In old winters, the rainfall decreases to mom per month on average. This is not the optimum condition for planting grapes, by right, along with the location in the central mountain of France. The really high latitude is inappropriate for growing grapes. However, Burgundy has cultivated and brewed such a lot of good variety of grapes and wine.
The reason is that most of the Burgundy vineyards are located in the south or south-facing gentle slope, which is better resistance to the frost damage and avoid the mistral, and use the thermal from the sun effectively. Those reasons make Burgundy better in planting grapes. Another main factor is the soil, which plays an important role in wine planting. The terrain feature of Burgundy present strip-shaped from north to south, which contributes to big differences in style between the north and south. The northern Chablis region is close to limited terrain condition of viticulture.
In Burgundy, the origin of geology and the chemical structure of soil are diversified from the north to the south. However, there is still a certain unifying feature on geology and soil structure, which its sedimentary soil makes up of clay, marl and limestone. The structure has been formed for fifteen million years since the Jurassic time. In addition, the composition of soil in Burgundy is varied, but mainly is calcareous soil. This kind of soil is most favored by Chardonnay and Pinot Noir. The elite position of those vineyards is located in the Golden Hill area, on the sunny eastern-facing slope.
Although, in the fascinating world of wine, both Bordeaux and Burgundy have a long history in winemaking since at least 500 BC and strong wine culture, but different cultural and historical backgrounds created different traditions and ideas, resulting n two different kinds of great French wines. Classification system between Burgundy and Bordeaux region are the major difference related to culture. Since 1855, Bordeaux has been classified based on price, while Burgundy has been classified based on terror (Benjamin 2010).
In the year of 1855, two events established contrasting styles for classifying and ranking wine, and the results have reverberated ever since. The classification of the Medic wine is the most noted one, which not only set out the classification of wine in the left bank, also made classification based on price for all Bordeaux wines. Burgundy region is entirely based on the location and nature of the vineyard terror to divide and decision levels, so only the best vineyards as to geographical conditions as the highest level. Another event is less known, which occurred in the same year.
Livable issued a map of every single vineyard in Burgundy which displayed details from Santayana to Dijon, grading them T©et De Cup©e, Premiere, Dioxide©me and even Troops©me Cup©e (Benjamin 2010). In 1936, the map of C¶et door was updated more than 400 appellations when the appellation control¶l©e system was announced. Now in Burgundy, every vineyard has TTS place in a hierarchy classified in descending order of quality from Grand Cru, Premier Cru, Village wine, to Generic Burgundy. These account for 2%, 10%, 36% and 52% of the total production of wines in Burgundy respectively (Tim 2014).
The elite part of the region is the Grand Crush. Those are the best-known vineyards and labeled solely with their names of the producer. Not every Grand’s Crush are equally quality, but most of them are normally the finest and relatively expensive wines in Burgundy. Another interesting difference refers to culture between Burgundy and Bordeaux is he shape of the wine glasses. The correct wine tasting glasses could enhance a fine wine to bring out the flavor, highlighting its features and keeping it in balance. Due to the different characteristics of those two regions, choosing wine glasses should not be the same as well.
Bordeaux-styled wine glasses are usually a large, tall bowl, which is shaped like a tulip. This kind of glasses is ideal for heaps of full body red wine, especially for Bordeaux wines. Because Bordeaux wines are generally is a bit high acidity and more tannin, the curvature of the glasses could appropriate control he speed of tasting rather than the vertical shaped glasses. Otherwise, the Burgundy red wines mainly from the Pinot Noir, which are quite fragrant, fruity and seductive. Spherical shape glasses with a wide and large bowl could make the aroma of Burgundy wine expand up toward your nose, enhance the complex aromas of the wine.
Also, due to the high acidity of the wine, the glasses usually have a slightly flared opening to direct the wine toward the tip of your tongue, accentuating the sweetness of the flavors. From the winemaking point of view, each region has its own feature and attractive Tyler. The variety of grapes, color and tasting are three major aspects when talking about the difference between Burgundy and Bordeaux region. The first difference is the raw material, which is related to the variety of grapes. Bordeaux wines usually make up with a multiple verities of grapes.
Winemakers in Bordeaux believe that the taste of each simple grape is not perfect, and therefore require the deployment of different varieties mixed together to complement each other in order to enhance the flavor. In addition, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, brewed together with one or overall other varieties of grapes, basically dominate this region of wines. Nevertheless, winemakers in Burgundy love making wine through one single variety of grape, small-scale production and packaging. Pinot Noir dominates most of them. The second major difference is the color from appearance. As to the red wine, the color is from the skin of the grape.
Due to the difference of dominant grapes, the colors of the wine from those two regions differ. The skin of the Cabernet Sauvignon is thicker than Pinot Noir. Hence the color of wines from Burgundy region seems to lighter by contrast to Bordeaux wines. The last distinguishing factor is the taste. Differences in varieties result in difference taste. As tannin is the main factor, which constitutes a main structure of the wine, Bordeaux wines, which mainly make up with Cabernet Sauvignon, have strong astringent taste, due to thicker skin. By contrast, Burgundy wine has more sour and fruit flavor, but less tannin.
This is because Pinot Noir has full and rich fruity flavor and thinner skin. Lastly, the main variety of the grape used to making wine is different as well. In Bordeaux, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot and Petit Overdo are the four main red grapes. The majority of the wine production in Bordeaux is red wine, which account for 4/5 of the total production. While Pinot Noir is the dominant red grape in the Burgundy region, Semicolon, Sauvignon Blank and dense Is Kodak are the representative while grapes of Bordeaux, where produce the best and most expensive red wine and sweet wines in the world.
In addition, the quantity of the dry white wines is particularly outstanding. Alighted and chardonnay are two main white grape varieties in Burgundy. Generally, the wine is made based on one single variety of grapes in Burgundy. Pinot noir is the main red grape in Burgundy. Compared to Cabernet Sauvignon, which is strong adaptability to the surroundings and low cultivation cost, Pinot Noir is one of the grapes that winemakers need to carefully take care. A glass of good quality Pinot Noir Burgundy wine will bring people unparalleled fantastic feeling.
Because of this, the world’s most ambitious wine producers were keen to plant this uncertain nature feature grape. However, not every wine region could possession Pinot Noir like The first reason why Pinot Noir the main red grape in Burgundy and not Bordeaux traces back to 4th century AD (Imprint 2011). There is an evidence that at that time, Pinot Noir was already planted in Burgundy. Pinot Noir used to name ‘Morrison Noir’ at an early time. Later in 14th century, with related record in Burgundy, a name called ‘Pinot Noir’ had already been described. The fate of Pinot Noir is related to Burgundy inevitably.
The second essential reason is the favorable growing conditions. Pinot Noir usually germinate earlier than other varieties, hence vulnerable to spring frost consequently, stop growing after flowering. Therefore, it is best not to plant Pinot Noir in low-lying, damp and cool place. The average temperature in Burgundy is higher and the infill precipitation is lower than Bordeaux, which is more appropriate for Pinot Noir growing. As for Cabernet Sauvignon, which is late maturing variety, a mixture of gravel and chunks of quartzite soil is more appropriate for Cabernet Sauvignon.
This is due to the heat transfer of gravel and drainage that is relatively good, more suitable for the late, maturing variety. The geographical condition of Bordeaux might be the good choice for Cabernet Sauvignon to grow. Theoretically, the production of Pinot Noir is quite low, but in Burgundy, the clone technology contribute to the improvement of the production during the sass and he early sass. Comparing with other majority of grape varieties, this variety is more vulnerable to various kinds of mold and easier to rot, but also more vulnerable to viruses, especially grapevine fan leaf virus and grapevine leaf roll virus (Edison 2002).
This is because the skin of the Pinot Noir is thinner than others. In fact, due to the spread of the disease in Burgundy vineyard, thereby, the clone of Pinot Noir is quite promoted in sass. Hence, Burgundy has a more advanced technology of planting and cloning Pinot Noir than Bordeaux. Thirdly, generally speaking, Pinot Noir from the limestone soil are usually with good laity. In the relative cold climate, this early ripen grapes generally ripen a bit late along with lack of aroma and the acidity is not enough. For example, in Burgundy, they both plant Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon.
In some years, the Pinot Noir might ripen later than Cabernet Sauvignon, but in some years, Cabernet Sauvignon might ripen later than Pinot Noir. There is a consensus that the brew of Pinot Noir is much harder than Cabernet Sauvignon. This is because in the process of the brewing, it is required to constantly monitor and alter the technology of winemaking according to the different needs each year. Due to the geographical reason, which is strip-shaped, most of the vineyards in Burgundy are smaller area and operation on a smaller scale than Bordeaux.
Therefore, the small-scale vineyard is good to take care of Pinot Noir and manage the vineyard in order to produce more good quality grapes. As the two of the most famous wine region in the world, it is admitted that both have a long history of wine and a strong wine culture. But in some aspect of geographical, cultural and winemaking, they still have some differences between those two. However, with no doubt, the wine from the Bordeaux and Burgundy region are fascinating and tasty aromas. On those two pieces of land, stand the world’s most famous wineries.