Dairy Industry in Pakistan
While comparing the value of milk with other cash crops, it was mentioned that milk had a value about 60% higher as compared to both wheat and cotton together. The land of Pakistan is benefited with both irrigated plains through mighty Indus river with its tributaries and desert areas like Scholastic and Thereafter. Pakistan is expended from costal range areas in the south to the alpine pastures in the north and has variability in topography, rainfall, immunity, temperature, plant and animal species, social and cultural heritage.
So Larry development Is not only name to meet ten growing means AT animal protein but for socioeconomic reasons as dairy animals provide regular cash income, economic utilization of family labor, create social security and supply growing markets. Milk production is an extremely labor intensive occupation, however, in many countries of the world including Pakistan, it is the most productive way of converting crop residues and agro industrial wastes into valuable food.
But due to biological and technical constrains like shortage of feed, high mortality rate, poor emetic potential etc; socio economic constraints like high input cost, scarcity of sources, inadequate marketing systems, commercial feed industry and policy constraints render this sector undeveloped and truly in a miserable condition. The main objective of this article is to review the potentials, problems and solutions pertaining to dairying in Pakistan. Main features of dairy sector in Pakistan.
Dairy industry in Pakistan has similar characteristics, like other developing Asian nations, which include small herd, poor genetic potential of animals for milk, low quality deeds, high risks of epidemics, improper marketing channels, lack of technical man power for dairy industry, high environmental stresses, reproductive failure and high udder abnormalities, orthodox management practices, poor extension services and lack of commercial rations. Despite of all above problems, dairy animals, mainly buffalo and cattle are producing 26. 4 million tones of milk in Pakistan (Agriculture Statistics, 1999-2000).
Per capita availability of milk in Pakistan is 82. 4 Keg annually. This quantity of milk provides more than half of the 17. 4 g of animal protein available or each Pakistani daily. But Pakistan still has to import dry milk and other milk products e. G. Butter, cheese, yogurt, cream, whey etc. Every year to fulfill the ever increasing demands for milk and milk products. During year 1999-2000 Pakistan expended about 1213. 5 million rupees of valuable foreign exchange to import the milk and milk products (Agricultural Statistics, 1999-2000).
The increasing demands for dairy products are attributed to high population growth rate and rapid arbitration. Population of buffalo and cattle. Pakistan owns about 23. 3 million heads of buffalo Agriculture Statistics 1999-2000). The buffalo population increased about 14. 7% during the last 6 years from 1996 to 2001 in Pakistan. Population trends indicate that their number is likely to further increase in future (Khan, 1998) Punjab, Kinds, NFW and Balloonists provinces contribute 64, 28, 7 and 1%, respectively, to the total buffalo population of the country (Livestock Scenes, 1996).
These figures indicate that most of the buffaloes are present in irrigated areas and along riversides of the country. About 60% of the total buffalo stock is, female buffalo stock, of above three years of age. It is estimated that about 8. 7 million heads of buffalo are in milk, remaining either in dry stage or not yet calved. About 0. 42 million buffalo bulls are available either for breeding or for work purposes. According to Economic Survey (1999-2000) of Pakistan about 22. 4 million heads of cattle are available in Fig. 1.