Fundamentals of Leadership Mindmap

Semiotics Symbols are a means of communication – can include authority and process. A symbol is something which signifies something else. The purpose of symbols is to convey meaning. Semiotics Symbols are a means of communication – can include authority and process. A symbol is something which signifies something else. The purpose of symbols is to convey meaning. Ideology Coherent set of ideas and their underpinning logic, which inform action, preferences. It is the framework we use to make sense of the world.
It is only visible to those who can look beyond the message, it lures people into forgetting that meaning is always socially constructed. Ideology Coherent set of ideas and their underpinning logic, which inform action, preferences. It is the framework we use to make sense of the world. It is only visible to those who can look beyond the message, it lures people into forgetting that meaning is always socially constructed. Hegemony The rule or influence of one country over others. The dominance or leadership of one social group over others.
Gramsci developed this 20th century Marxism – where hegemony tries to explain the control of the dominance class in capitalism. Hegemony The rule or influence of one country over others. The dominance or leadership of one social group over others. Gramsci developed this 20th century Marxism – where hegemony tries to explain the control of the dominance class in capitalism. Managerialism Organisations have more similarities than differences so the performance of all organisations can be optimised by the application of generic management skills and theory.

Managerialism Organisations have more similarities than differences so the performance of all organisations can be optimised by the application of generic management skills and theory. Key points 1)Co-founder of Marxism. 2)critique against capitalism 3)communist manifesto (1848) capital (1867-94) 4)focus on alienation and exploitation of the working class Key points 1)Co-founder of Marxism. 2)critique against capitalism 3)communist manifesto (1848) capital (1867-94) 4)focus on alienation and exploitation of the working class Habermas’ contributions
His major contribution is his development of a theory of rationality. He criticises industrial democracies in the west for equating humanity with economic efficiency. A possibility for community through communicative action that strives for agreement between others. The importance of ‘ideal speech’ where you are able to raise moral and political concern and defend them by rationality only. Habermas’ contributions His major contribution is his development of a theory of rationality. He criticises industrial democracies in the west for equating humanity with economic efficiency.
A possibility for community through communicative action that strives for agreement between others. The importance of ‘ideal speech’ where you are able to raise moral and political concern and defend them by rationality only. Karl Marx 1818-1883 Karl Marx 1818-1883 Critique of Capitalism As a mode of production with 2 key features: goods and services produced as commodities. Individuals labour power is also a commodity and can be bought and sold in the labour market. Wage slaves – Capitalism involves free exchange rather than pressure, but must sell their labour power to a capitalist to survive.
Value added – machines, tools and innovations are used to help in production, this helps to gain abnormal profits or reduce turnover times etc. however these practices are adopted by competitors and workers productivity and wages become crucial thus only labour power can add value. Fundamental basis of economical class struggle in capitalism by increasing productivity by longer working day, intensifying effort during working hours, boosting output by cost effective and labour cutting techniques. Critique of Capitalism
As a mode of production with 2 key features: goods and services produced as commodities. Individuals labour power is also a commodity and can be bought and sold in the labour market. Wage slaves – Capitalism involves free exchange rather than pressure, but must sell their labour power to a capitalist to survive. Value added – machines, tools and innovations are used to help in production, this helps to gain abnormal profits or reduce turnover times etc. however these practices are adopted by competitors and workers productivity and wages become crucial thus only labour power can add value.
Fundamental basis of economical class struggle in capitalism by increasing productivity by longer working day, intensifying effort during working hours, boosting output by cost effective and labour cutting techniques. Modernism Modernism Max Weber 1864-1920 Max Weber 1864-1920 Jurgen Habermas 1929 – Jurgen Habermas 1929 – Key points 1)major work – rationalisation and disenchantment associated with capitalism and modernity. 2)strong relationship between protestant morality and successful western capitalism. 3)3 different types of authority: traditional, charismatic and legal rational. )defined rationalisation 5)developed a theory of bureaucracy. Key points 1)major work – rationalisation and disenchantment associated with capitalism and modernity. 2)strong relationship between protestant morality and successful western capitalism. 3)3 different types of authority: traditional, charismatic and legal rational. 4)defined rationalisation 5)developed a theory of bureaucracy. Critical Management studies Is a movement that questions the authority and relevance if mainstream thinking and practice. Its focus is management as a pervasive institution that is entrenched within capitalist economic formations.
Critical Management studies Is a movement that questions the authority and relevance if mainstream thinking and practice. Its focus is management as a pervasive institution that is entrenched within capitalist economic formations. Habermas on communication A model of communicative rationality that takes into account the effect power has on the situation and opposes the traditional idea of an objective and functionalist reason. He wanted to construct a non-oppressive, inclusive and universalist moral framework for discourse – where all speech acts are for mutual understanding. Habermas on communication
A model of communicative rationality that takes into account the effect power has on the situation and opposes the traditional idea of an objective and functionalist reason. He wanted to construct a non-oppressive, inclusive and universalist moral framework for discourse – where all speech acts are for mutual understanding. Post Modernism Post Modernism Michel Foucault 1926-1984 Michel Foucault 1926-1984 Critical Theory To develop a more rational, enlightened society through a process of critical reflection. To mobilise the potentials of critical reasoning in order to question and transform oppressive features of the modern world.
Critical Theory To develop a more rational, enlightened society through a process of critical reflection. To mobilise the potentials of critical reasoning in order to question and transform oppressive features of the modern world. 1979 Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. The privatisation of property activated the privatisation of power. Compares 18th century torture and execution to 19th century prison and disciplinary prisons used- showing power. 1979 Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. The privatisation of property activated the privatisation of power.
Compares 18th century torture and execution to 19th century prison and disciplinary prisons used- showing power. Weber and Bureaucracy The iron cage – the high reliance on machine production determines our lives that threatens to confine us within an ‘iron cage’ Clear division of labour. Standards of impersonality govern interpersonal relations. People do not act as people but as a role of an office. Rules are carried out without any regard for people. Weber and Bureaucracy The iron cage – the high reliance on machine production determines our lives that threatens to confine us within an ‘iron cage’ Clear division of labour.
Standards of impersonality govern interpersonal relations. People do not act as people but as a role of an office. Rules are carried out without any regard for people. Habermas and ideal speech When communication and dialogue are free of distortions an ‘ideal speech’ situation can be said to exist. To attain this lies in a specific form of knowledge, based on self- reflection. Habermas on communicative action Meaningful interaction between persons. Action that is couched in ordinary language and saying something. A way of doing something by conveying a message, establish social relationships.
Express opinions and feelings and expressing self-identity. Habermas and ideal speech When communication and dialogue are free of distortions an ‘ideal speech’ situation can be said to exist. To attain this lies in a specific form of knowledge, based on self- reflection. Habermas on communicative action Meaningful interaction between persons. Action that is couched in ordinary language and saying something. A way of doing something by conveying a message, establish social relationships. Express opinions and feelings and expressing self-identity.
Foucault : power and control Classical and system theory: organisations as logical, functional, impersonal passionless entities – neutral rules of efficiency and economy. Brought to life and maintained through: language, conversation and experience. Talking and arguing, reinforce structures of membership, acceptance and decision making. Political forces. Organisations as social constructions: legal and emotional ownership, membership and control. Skill, ability and learning capacity. Human frailty, willingness, passion and self-centredness. Foucault : power and control
Classical and system theory: organisations as logical, functional, impersonal passionless entities – neutral rules of efficiency and economy. Brought to life and maintained through: language, conversation and experience. Talking and arguing, reinforce structures of membership, acceptance and decision making. Political forces. Organisations as social constructions: legal and emotional ownership, membership and control. Skill, ability and learning capacity. Human frailty, willingness, passion and self-centredness. Foucault and Discipline Discipline is a series of techniques of observation, training and the direction of individuals.
Where one is subjected to the will of another. Foucault wanted to understand the disciplinary power that is diffused throughout society. Our reliance and acceptance of certain norms circulates through our language and politics. Foucault and Discipline Discipline is a series of techniques of observation, training and the direction of individuals. Where one is subjected to the will of another. Foucault wanted to understand the disciplinary power that is diffused throughout society. Our reliance and acceptance of certain norms circulates through our language and politics.
Organisational control Organizational structures hierarchy, influence tactics such as: compliance, surveillance, technology, pay and rewards, power to set the agenda and power to execute. Organisational control Organizational structures hierarchy, influence tactics such as: compliance, surveillance, technology, pay and rewards, power to set the agenda and power to execute. Weber and Rationalisation The process by which nature, society and individual action are mastered to orientation to planning, technical procedure and rational action Weber and Rationalisation
The process by which nature, society and individual action are mastered to orientation to planning, technical procedure and rational action Weber’s thoughts Spread of bureaucracy to all areas of life would imprison us in an ‘iron cage’ with no escape. It could crush the human spirit by regulating all spheres of social life. Bureaucracy has potential to suffocate and dehumanise people. Bureaucracy excludes public from decision making and participation in the production of consensus, which leads to loss of democracy. Weber’s thoughts
Spread of bureaucracy to all areas of life would imprison us in an ‘iron cage’ with no escape. It could crush the human spirit by regulating all spheres of social life. Bureaucracy has potential to suffocate and dehumanise people. Bureaucracy excludes public from decision making and participation in the production of consensus, which leads to loss of democracy. The Frankfurt school (Institute of social research) ( The Frankfurt school (Institute of social research) ( Founded to interpret critique and reframe the relevance of Marxist thought for contemporary industrial society.
Founded to interpret critique and reframe the relevance of Marxist thought for contemporary industrial society. They gathered together dissident Marxists – severe criticisms of capitalism who opposed Marx’s thought of economic determinism and special role of communist party. They selected parts of Marxist thought that they fitted in with the modern world – influenced especially by the failure of working class revolutions and advanced German nation. Looked at Max Weber and Sigmund Freud to fill Marx’s perceived omissions – attempt to overcome the limits of positivism, crude materialism and phenomenology.
They gathered together dissident Marxists – severe criticisms of capitalism who opposed Marx’s thought of economic determinism and special role of communist party. They selected parts of Marxist thought that they fitted in with the modern world – influenced especially by the failure of working class revolutions and advanced German nation. Looked at Max Weber and Sigmund Freud to fill Marx’s perceived omissions – attempt to overcome the limits of positivism, crude materialism and phenomenology. Marx and Exploitation
The exchange value of a product is determined by the quantity of labour necessary to produce it. Marx’s position is that while it is labour that determines the exchange value of commodities, the exchange of labour for wages is not reciprocally balanced. What is exchanged is labour power: the capacity to work. Marx and Exploitation The exchange value of a product is determined by the quantity of labour necessary to produce it. Marx’s position is that while it is labour that determines the exchange value of commodities, the exchange of labour for wages is not reciprocally balanced.
What is exchanged is labour power: the capacity to work. Marx and alienation Marx identifies 4 types of worker alienation under capitalism: 1) self-estrangement 2) estrangement from the product of their labour. 3) Estrangement from their species being 4) estrangement from others. 1)Alienation of the worker from the work he produces, from the product of his labour – the absence of control by the producer over the product. The product reduces, rather than expresses the producer’s humanity, and sustains alienation by buttressing capitalism. )Alienation of the worker from working, from the act of producing itself – increasing division of labour. This fragments the productive process into meaningless, and ostensibly unrelated tasks such that the general orientation of labour to work is not one of the creative liberation but instrumental and forced labour. 3)Alienation of the worker from other workers or producers – turn every productive group into competitors, setting individual against individual and reducing the social relations between people to economic exchanges or commodities. ) Alienation of the worker from himself as a producer, from his or her species being – objects designed for use by humans are transformed via the capitalist mode of production into commodities that dominate humans. Marx and alienation Marx identifies 4 types of worker alienation under capitalism: 1) self-estrangement 2) estrangement from the product of their labour. 3) Estrangement from their species being 4) estrangement from others. )Alienation of the worker from the work he produces, from the product of his labour – the absence of control by the producer over the product. The product reduces, rather than expresses the producer’s humanity, and sustains alienation by buttressing capitalism. 2)Alienation of the worker from working, from the act of producing itself – increasing division of labour. This fragments the productive process into meaningless, and ostensibly unrelated tasks such that the general orientation of labour to work is not one of the creative liberation but instrumental and forced labour. )Alienation of the worker from other workers or producers – turn every productive group into competitors, setting individual against individual and reducing the social relations between people to economic exchanges or commodities. 4) Alienation of the worker from himself as a producer, from his or her species being – objects designed for use by humans are transformed via the capitalist mode of production into commodities that dominate humans.

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