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Various Forms of the t TestCOLLAPSE

T-tests are usually used to associate the means from two different groups of data. They help you compare means significant differences from one another or if they are slightly the same.

Independent sample t-tests are used to associate groups of participants that are not associated. The groups are independent of each other. Essentially, participants in one group have no relationship to participants in the second group.

The paired samples t-test can be used to compare means for groups of scores that are obtained by making repeated measurements on the same group of participants whose behaviors are assessed at two times or in two trials, before versus after an intervention, or under two different treatment conditions. This test is also appropriate when the scores in the two samples are correlated because the samples are matched or paired or yoked. The paired samples t-test is also sometimes called the direct difference or correlated samples t-test. The following computational formulas make it clear why it is sometimes called the direct difference t-test; the first step in the computation of the paired samples t-test involves finding a difference score (Time 2 score − Time 1 score) for each participant.

T-test for dependent samples in most cases is applied where statisticians need to know if there exists a difference between somepopulations when the sampled data is dependent. We, therefore, need to know which variables are dependent. For example, we may need to know how the knowledge of students will improve if we use tutorials. Therefore, the data should be collected for students before and after applying if the tutorials.