The Amazing World of Laughter & it Super Healing Power
Agriculture – the study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications Anatomy – the study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans Arachnology – the study of arachnids
Astrobiology – the study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe—also known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and bioastronomy Biochemistry – the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level Bioengineering – the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology Biogeography – the study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally Bioinformatics – the use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data Biomathematics (or Mathematical biology) – the quantitative or mathematical study of biological processes, with an emphasis on modeling
Biomechanics – often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through prosthetics or orthotics Biomedical research – the study of the human body in health and disease Biomusicology – study of music from a biological point of view. Biophysics – the study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences Biotechnology – a new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology Building biology – the study of the indoor living environment Botany – the study of plants
Cell biology – the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell Conservation biology – the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife Cryobiology – the study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings Developmental biology – the study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure Ecology – the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment Embryology – the study of the development of embryo (from fecundation to birth) Entomology – the study of insects
Environmental biology – the study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by human activity Epidemiology – a major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the health of populations Epigenetics – the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence Ethology – the study of animal behavior Evolutionary biology – the study of the origin and descent of species over time Genetics – the study of genes and heredity Hematology ( also known as Haematology ) – the study of blood and blood – forming organs.
Herpetology – the study of reptiles and amphibians Histology – the study of cells and tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy Ichthyology – the study of fish Integrative biology – the study of whole organisms Limnology – the study of inland waters Mammalogy – the study of mammals Marine biology (or Biological oceanography) – the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings Microbiology – the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things Molecular biology – the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry Mycology – the study of fungi
Neurobiology – the study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology and pathology Oncology – the study of cancer processes, including virus or mutation oncogenesis, angiogenesis and tissues remoldings Ornithology – the study of birds Population biology – the study of groups of conspecific organisms, including Population ecology – the study of how population dynamics and extinction Population genetics – the study of changes in gene frequencies in populations of organisms Paleontology – the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life Pathobiology or pathology – the study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease Parasitology – the study of parasites and parasitism
Pharmacology – the study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines Physiology – the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms Phytopathology – the study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology) Psychobiology – the study of the biological bases of psychology Sociobiology – the study of the biological bases of sociology Structural biology – a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules
Synthetic Biology- research integrating biology and engineering; construction of biological functions not found in nature Virology – the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents Zoology – the study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior (branches include: Entomology, Ethology, Herpetology, Ichthyology,Mammalogy, and Ornithology) History of Philippine Money Philippine money–multi-colored threads woven into the fabric of our social, political and economic life.
From its early bead-like form to the paper notes and coins that we know today, our money has been a constant reminder of our journey through centuries as a people relating with one another and with other peoples of the world. Pre-Hipic Era Trade among the early Filipinos and with traders from the neighboring islands was conducted through barter. The inconvenience of barter later led to the use of some objects as medium of exchange. Gold, which was plentiful in many parts of the islands, invariably found its way into these objects that included the piloncitos, small bead-likeb gold bits considered by the local numismatists as the earliest coin of the ancient Filipinos, and gold barter rings. Spanish Era (1521-1897) Three hundred years of Spanish rule left many indelible imprints on Philippine numismatics.
At the end of the Spanish regime, Philippine money was a multiplicity of currencies that included Mexican pesos, Alfonsino pesos and copper coins of other currencies. The cobs or macuquinas of colonial mints were the earliest coins brought in by the galleons from Mexico and other Spanish colonies. The silver dos mundos or pillar dollar is considered one of the world’s most beautiful coins. The barilla, a crude bronze or copper coin worth about one centavo, was the first coin struck in the country. Coins from other Spanish colonies also reached the Philippines and were counterstamped. Gold coins with the portrait of Queen Isabela were minted in Manila. Silver pesos with the profile of young Alfonso XIII were the last coins minted in Spain.
The pesos fuertes, issued by the country’s first bank, the El Banco Epol Filipino de Isabel II, were the first paper money circulated in the country. Revolutionary Period (1898-1899) Asserting its independence, the Philippine Republic of 1898 under General Emilio Aguinaldo issued its own coins and paper currency backed by the country’s natural resources. One peso and five peso notes printed as Republika Filipina Papel Moneda de Un Peso and Cinco Pesos were freely circulated. 2 centimos de peso copper were also issued in 1899. The American Period (1900-1941) The Americans instituted a monetary system for the Philippine based on gold and pegged the Philippine peso to the American dollar at the ratio of 2:1. The US Congress approved the Coinage Act for the Philippines in 1903.
The coins issued under the system bore the designs of Filipino engraver and artist, Melecio Figueroa. Coins in denomination of one-half centavo to one peso were minted. The renaming of El Banco Epol Filipino to Bank of the Philippine Islands in 1912 paved the way for the use of English from Spanish in all notes and coins issued up to 1933. Beginning May 1918, treasury certificates replaced the silver certificates series, and a one-peso note was added. The Japanese Occupation (1942-1945) The outbreak of World War II caused serious disturbances in the Philippine monetary system. Two kinds of notes circulated in the country during this period. The Japanese Occupation Forces issued war notes in big denominations.
Provinces and municipalities, on the other hand, issued their own guerrilla notes or resistance currencies, most of which were sanctioned by the Philippine government in-exile, and partially redeemed after the war. The Philippine Republic A nation in command of its destiny is the message reflected in the evolution of Philippine money under the Philippine Republic. Having gained independence from the United States following the end of World War II, the country used as currency old treasury certificates overprinted with the word “Victory”. With the establishment of the Central Bank of the Philippines in 1949, the first currencies issued were the English series notes printed by the Thomas de la Rue & Co. , Ltd.
in England and the coins minted at the US Bureau of Mint. The Filipinazation of the Republic coins and paper money began in the late 60’s and is carried through to the present. In the 70’s, the Ang Bagong Lipunan (ABL) series notes were circulated, which were printed at the Security Printing Plant starting 1978. A new wave of change swept through the Philippine coinage system with the flora and fauna coins initially issued in 1983. These series featured national heroes and species of flora and fauna. The new design series of banknotes issued in 1985 replaced the ABL series. Ten years later, a new set of coins and notes were issued carrying the logo of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.